Bloom's Big Bagel theory of the cosmos. 

image by Rob Kritkausky

Among the many brain-teasers in current science are these:

1)  If matter and anti-matter are created simultaneously in equal amounts, why is there so much matter in this universe and so little anti-matter?

Matter and antimatter are generated in equal amounts.

image courtesy of CERN

2)  What the heck is dark energy? Nobel Prize-winning research on Type 1a supernovas has shown that roughly five billion years ago, the galaxies did more than their average rush apart.  They began to speed up.  They accelerated.  They cannonballed away from each other with increasing haste.  Acceleration takes energy.  So where did the mystery energy jackrabbiting galaxies and stars apart come from?

Over five billion years ago, galaxies started accelerating away from each other. Why?

image courtesy of NASA

One possible answer: the Bloom Toroidal Model of the Universe, aka The Big Bagel.


image by Sabine Allaeys

Imagine a bagel with one of those anally retentive, infinitesimally tiny holes. 

The Big Bagel's hole.

image courtesy of

Your bagel is an Einsteinian manifold, a sheet of time, space, and gravity.  It's 13.72 billion years ago. An explosion spurts abruptly from the bagel's hole.  Rocketing up the bagel's topside is a Big Bang of matter. 

Where all the matter goes.

image by Bryan Brandenburg

Normal matter spurts on the bagel's top.

image by Sabine Allaeys, wobbly lines by Howard Bloom

But gushing from the hole on the bottom is an equal and opposite, a big bang of anti-matter.   That's where all the anti-matter goes.

Where does all the anti-matter go?

image by Bryan Brandenburg

In Einsteinian manifolds, the shape of space tells matter how to move. A steep slope says "move fast; Very fast. Rush. Race. Speed."

Steep slopes send a message--speed!

image by Bryan Brandenburg

The slopes that funnel upward and downward from the bagel's hole are steep. That steep curve tells the matter and anti-matter universes to race upward (or downward) and outward at unbelievable speed, the speed known in physics and cosmology as "inflation."

But the traveling orders that space gives to matter change as the two universes approach the flatness of the bagel's upper and under hump. 

Where is a bagel's hump?

image courtesy of

The leveling, horizontal curve of space dictates a more leisurely pace. 

Here comes that dratted hump again.

image by Sabine Alles, scribbly black arrows by Howard Bloom (he should be ashamed of himself)

Like a cannonball reaching the high point of its curve, the universe and anti-matter universe begin to run out of the energy that has shot them apart from each other.  Which leads to the second physics question of the day.  What is dark energy?

The two universes reach the bagel's high and low point at the 7.7 billion year mark.  Then the downward slope of the bagel tells them to speed up again. 

Where the speedup begins.

image by bryan brandenburg

The speed rush beyond the bagel's hump.

image by Bryan Brandenburg

 Why does the matter in the two universes accelerate?  Where does the extra energy that rushes galaxies apart from each other come from?  The answer?  Gravity.  As it slips down the bagel's outer slope, the normal universe falls under the seductive sway of the anti-matter universe's gravity and speeds up.   And the anti-matter universe is caught by the come-hither power of the matter universe's gravity.  It, too, speeds up.

How will the universe end?  At the bagel's outer edge,

The Bagel's outer edge is a big deal in Big Bagel theory.

the two equal but opposite universes meet and do what matter and anti-matter always do.  They annihilate.  But here's the trick. They annihilate in a burst of energy. 

How will the universe end?

incompetent sketch by Howard Bloom

And the bagel's outer rim is also its center.  So the explosion of annihilation is, guess what?  The next big bang.

That's it: the Big Bagel.  For the story behind Big Bagel theory, see The God Problem: How A Godless Cosmos Creates by Howard Bloom, a book that Harvard Nobel Prize-winner Dudley Herschbach calls "Truly awesome.  Terrific."

The God Problem: How A Godless Cosmos Creates

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